A program that implements such a text interface is often called a command-line interpreter, command processor or shell. Although the term 'shell' is often used to describe a command-line interpreter, strictly speaking, a 'shell' can be any program that constitutes the user-interface, including fully graphically oriented ones.
INI configuration file. These programs are shells, but not CLIs. Application command-line interfaces[ edit ] GNU Octave 's GUI with command-line interface Application programs as opposed to ce este o opțiune de linie systems may also have command-line interfaces. An application program may support none, any, or all of these three major types of command-line interface mechanisms: Parameters: Most operating systems support a means to pass additional information to a program when it is launched.
When a program is launched from an OS command-line shell, additional text provided along with the program name is passed to the launched program.
Interactive command-line sessions: After launch, a program may provide an operator with an independent means to enter commands in the form of text. Inter-process communication: Most operating systems support means of inter-process communication for example, standard streams or named pipes.
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Command lines from client processes may be redirected to a CLI program by one of these methods. Some applications support only a CLI, presenting a CLI prompt to the user and acting upon command lines as they are entered.
The early Sierra games, such as the first three King's Quest games —used commands from an internal command line to move the character around in the graphic window. History[ edit ] The command-line interface evolved from a form of dialog once conducted by humans over teleprinter TTY machines, in which human operators remotely exchanged information, usually one line of text at a time.
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Early computer systems often used teleprinter machines as the means of interaction with a human operator. The computer became one end of the human-to-human teleprinter model.
So instead of a human communicating with another human over a teleprinter, a human communicated with a computer. The mechanical teleprinter was replaced by a "glass tty"a keyboard and screen emulating the teleprinter. These were typically used to interface an organization's new PC's with their existing mini- or mainframe computers, or to connect PC to PC. Early operating system CLIs were implemented as part of resident monitor programs, and could not easily be replaced.
The first implementation of the shell as a replaceable component was part of the Multics time-sharing operating system.
Although it is used as an interactive command interpreter, it was also intended as a scripting language and contains most of the features that are commonly considered to produce structured programs. The Bourne shell led to the development of the KornShell kshAlmquist shell ashand the popular Bourne-again shell or Bash.
During the s and s, the introduction of the Apple Macintosh and of Microsoft Windows on PCs saw the command line interface as the primary user interface replaced by the Graphical User Interface.
The command line remained available as an alternative user interface, often used by system administrators and other advanced users for system administration, care opțiune binară retrage rapid bani programming and batch processing. In NovemberMicrosoft released version 1.
NET Framework. Microsoft ce este o opțiune de linie MKS Inc. Sincethe Macintosh operating system macOS has been based on a Unix-like operating system called Darwin. On these computers, users can access a Unix-like command-line interface by running the terminal emulator program called Terminalwhich is found in the Utilities sub-folder of the Applications folder, or by remotely logging into the machine using ssh.
Z shell is the default shell for macOS; bashtcshand the KornShell are also provided. Before macOS Catalinabash was the default.
Tot ce getopt nu este canonicalize opțiunile care sunt transmise într — adică de a le converti la o formă mai standard, astfel încât acesta's ușor pentru un script de shell pentru a le procesa. De ce folosesc getopt "în loc de" getopts? Motivul de bază este că doar GNUgetopt oferă suport pentru mult timp-numit opțiuni de linie de comandă. Dacă ștergeți primele 9 linii tot prin eval set linecodul va încă de lucru! Cu toate acestea, codul va fi mult pickler în ce tipuri de opțiuni se acceptă: În special, nu'll trebuie să specificați toate opțiunile în "canonic" forma descrisă mai sus.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message A CLI is used whenever a large vocabulary of commands or queries, coupled with a wide or arbitrary range of options, can be entered more rapidly as text than with a pure GUI.
This is typically the case with operating system command shells. CLIs are also used by systems with insufficient resources to support a graphical user interface. CLIs are often used by programmers and system administrators, in engineering and scientific environments, and by technically advanced personal computer users. CLIs are also popular among people with visual disabilities since the commands and responses can be displayed using refreshable Braille displays.
Anatomy of a shell CLI[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
July The general pattern of an OS command line interface   is: Prompt command param1 param2 param3 … paramN Prompt — generated by the program to provide context for the client. Command — provided by the client. Commands are usually one of three classes: Internal commands are recognized and processed by the command line interpreter itself and not dependent upon any external executable file. Included commands run separate executable files generally considered part of the operating environment and always included with the OS.
External commands run executable files that are not part of the basic OS, but added by other parties for specific purposes and applications. The format and meaning of the parameters depends upon the command issued. In the case of Included or External commands, the values of the parameters are delivered to the program specified by the Command as it is launched by the OS.
Parameters may be either Arguments or Options. In this example, the delimiters between command-line elements are whitespace characters and the end-of-line delimiter is the newline delimiter.
This is a widely used but not universal convention for command-line interfaces. A CLI can generally be considered as consisting of syntax and semantics. The syntax is the grammar that all commands must follow.
In the case of operating systemsDOS and Unix each define their own set of rules that all commands must follow. In the case of embedded systemseach vendor, such as NortelJuniper Networks or Cisco Systemsdefines their own proprietary set of rules that all commands within their CLI conform to.
These rules also dictate how a user navigates through the system of commands.
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The semantics define what sort of operations are possible, on what sort of data these operations can be performed, and how the grammar represents these operations and data—the symbolic meaning in the syntax. Two different CLIs may agree on either syntax or semantics, but it is only when they agree on both that they can be considered sufficiently ce este o opțiune de linie to allow users to use both CLIs without needing to learn anything, as well as to enable re-use of scripts.
A simple CLI will display a prompt, accept a "command line" typed by the user terminated by the Enter keythen execute the specified command and provide textual display of results or error messages.
Advanced CLIs will validate, interpret and parameter-expand the command line before executing the specified command, and optionally capture or redirect its output. Unlike a button or menu item in a GUI, a command line is typically self-documenting, stating exactly what the user wants done.
In addition, command lines usually include many defaults that can be changed to customize the results. Useful command lines can be saved by assigning a character string or alias to represent the full command, or several commands can be grouped to perform a more complex sequence — for instance, compile the program, install it, and run it — creating a single entity, called a command procedure or script which itself can be treated as a command.
These advantages mean that a user must figure out a complex command or series of commands only once, because they can be saved, to be used again.
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This will overwrite the file. Another redirection operator is the vertical barwhich creates a pipeline where the output of one command becomes the input to the next command. CLI and resource protection[ edit ] One can modify the set of available commands by modifying which paths appear in the PATH environment variable.